Let's study the basic Arabic alphabet together today.
Structure of Arabic alphabet
First we will talk about the structure of the Arabic alphabet.
Let's look at the example of "السلام عليكم" that I wrote earlier.
This is the one that the Arabic greeting "Abara alaikum (Assalarāum'arayakama)" was written in Arabic character, and it actually only represents this consonant.
"Eh, what is it?"I think.
Yes, the language of Arabic is basically a consonant character.
Then, where is the vowel determined?
I will try to rewrite the Alaikum in detail here again.
Compared to the previous one, there were several marks on the character.
In fact, this "mark" represents a vowel.
This mark is also called the vowel symbol (auxiliary symbol).
* The supplementary symbol may represent a double consonant in addition to the vowel symbol.
* Vowel symbols (auxiliary symbols) are only written in books and Koran for children.
There are three vowels "a-i-u" in Arabic.
It's not like five Japanese.
Vowel symbol representing "a"
If a horizontal line appears above the consonant character, it represents the vowel "a".
The name of this vowel symbol is "fatha".There is no need to remember.
In addition, "ا" under this vowel symbol is a character named "Alif/الف".I'll show you more later.
Vowel symbol representing "I"
If a horizontal line is entered under the consonant character, it represents the vowel "I".
The name is Caslo (Kasrah/كسرة).
A vowel symbol representing "u"
In this case, the vowel "u" is expressed when the number 9 is diagonally above the consonant character.
The name is "DOMA (Dhammah/ضمة)".
Now, I learned that the Arabic alphabet consists of a consonant character and a vowel symbol (an auxiliary symbol).
Since we have already touched three vowel symbols, the next one is the consonant character.
The Arabic language is represented by 29 different characters.
To be precise, it is represented by 28 kinds of consonant characters and the "ا (Alif)" mentioned earlier.
Also, Arabic characters are not case-sensitive.
The Arabic consonant has a lot of peculiar sounds using the throat, so it's confusing to remember everything from the beginning, so I'll introduce it in five different levels.
- For information on pronunciation and text, refer to the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Arabic language module.
- In addition, I used the video that the native speaker actually pronounced to clarify the pronunciation.(This is the first video I learned about Arabic characters)
Level i. "Consonants in Japanese"
Level 1 is a consonant that is also Japanese.There are 14 kinds of them.
[Name] Alifu/Alif/الف 【 Pronunciation 】 vowel symbol sound [-] [Explanation] Japanese "A-y", not a consonant character 【 Alphabetical order 】 First
【 Name 】 Bar/Bā/با Pronunciation B [B] [Description] Japanese "ba bi bu" [Alphabetical] Second [Citation from] voiced, both lips, pop/b/
【 Name 】 tar/Tā/تا Pronunciation T [t] [Explanation] Japanese "ta thi tu" [Alphabetical] Third [Source] silent, gum, pop/t/
【 Name 】 Jim/Jīm/جيم Pronunciation J [ʤ] [Explanation] Japanese "Ja say named Ju" 【 Alphabetical order 】 Fifth [Source] Voiced/posterior gums/
[Name] Dahl/Dāl/دال Pronunciation D [D] [Explanation] Japanese "Da di de" [Alphabetical order] 8th [Citation from] voiced, gums, pop/DV
【 Name 】 User/Zā/زا Pronunciation Z [z] [Explanation] Japanese "The Zi Zuu" [Alphabetical order] 11st [Citation from] voiced, gums, fricative/z/
[Name] Scene/Sīn/سين Pronunciation S [s] Description: "sa-si-Suu" in Japanese [Alphabetical order] 12nd [Source] silent, gum, fricative//
【 Name 】 ushion/Syīn/شين Pronunciation Sy [ʃ] [Explanation] Japanese "sha si sh" [Alphabetical order] 13rd [Source] silent, posterior gums, fricative/ʃ/
【 Name 】 Calf/Kāf/كاف Pronunciation K [K] [Explanation] Japanese "K-ki" [Alphabetical order] 22nd [Source] silent, soft palate, pop/k/
【 Name 】 meme/Mīm/ميم Pronunciation M [m] [Explanation] Japanese "Ma Mi-mu" [Alphabetical] 24th [Source] voiced, both lips, nasal sound
【 Name 】 Noon/Nūn/نون Pronunciation N [n] Description: "Na ni-nu" in Japanese [Alphabetical order] 25th [Citation from] voiced, gums, nasal
【 Name 】 Wau/Wāw/واو Pronunciation W [W] [Explanation] Japanese "wa-Wu", Wu is a round and pronounced [Alphabetical order] 26th [Source] voiced, both lips soft palate/proximity sound//
【 Name 】 ha/Hā/ها Pronunciation H [H] [Explanation] Japanese "Ha Hi Hu" [Alphabetical order] 27th [Source] silent, vocal, fricative//
- "Hi" will spread the mouth a little and pronounce it, and "Hu" should be conscious of rounding the lip and pronouncing it.
- In addition, the sound of the breath passes like the line of the Japanese does not ring, and it pronounces it heavily in the mouth.
【 Name 】 Yer/Yā/يا Pronunciation Y [y] [Explanation] Japanese "ya Yi yu", Yi is spread the whole tongue slightly sideways, pronounce the Japanese "Y" [Alphabetical order] 29th [Citation from] voiced, hard palate, close tone/y/
Now, level one is finished.I will carry it over next time because the article becomes long.